Grendel Chapters - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. x. Documents Similar To Grendel John Gardner Chapters Brief Life Story: John Gardner was an American writer, critic, and professor. Late in his career, Gardner wrote Grendel and the novel was his first work of. Download Grendel by John Gardner PDF novel free. Grendel is a fiction, mystery and thriller novel which plots the story of Grendel and his epic.
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
PDF | 65 minutes read | On Jan 1, , Hossein Pirnajmuddin and others published Philosophy in John Gardner's Grendel. Grendel by John Gardner, , Knopf edition, in English - [1st ed.]. Point of View and Character Study from Grendel by John Gardner. Note: John Gardner's Grendel – the novel from which this excerpt comes – retells part of.
Grendel combines both those fears: he's a brute with "belly growling, mindless as wind, for blood" my emphasis —and he says he is a machine. If you're into film classics, cf. Grendel is a creature of cold, wet, and darkness; he likes the night with its "cold mechanics of the stars. And that was fine with the Deists. How does Grendel feel about such things? Do his feelings change, and, if so, when and how? Note the references to injustice and disease.
Grendel on his mother and the dragon 6 "Why are we here? If "Life is like a sewer," the answer to "Why do we stand this putrid, stinking hole?
Grendel's mother tells him "nothing. He was not a friend. Funeral 8 : Beowulf has a funeral near its beginning and moves toward Beowulf's funeral at its end.
Chapter 2 Grendel hanging from the tree 13 f. Christ, of course, was hung on the "rood tree" in the old phrase. A more likely parallel is the Norse god Odin, "hanging on the World Tree […] pierced with a spear" for nine days and nights. Odin's action was "a voluntary sacrifice" for "the acquisition of secret, hidden knowledge, since the god is able to peer down from the tree and lift up the runes which represented magic lore" H.
Davidson, Gods and Myths of Northern Europe. What does Grendel learn from his suffering in this sequence? Does his narrative seem plausible? The Shaper is a conflation of Hrothgar's scop and the Beowulf poet. The OE word for "create [poetry]" is sceapen or scieppan or scyppan; a literal rendering of "scop" would be Erlich, StGd Grendel 5 "shaper.
Note the effect of poetry on Grendel. Still, Grendel's reactions are pretty extreme for an outright monster Why does poetry move Grendel so much? Does the monster desire Goodness, Truth, and Beauty? Is it significant that Grendel feels such "sorrow and tenderness" in the late spring, when all other creatures are mated? What's the significance of juxtaposing the poetry with Grendel's rendition of how Hrothgar really became so great a king?
Chapter 4: Grendel on Poetry—Meaning in Art? Recall this later, in the talk with the dragon. Has the Shaper changed Hrothgar's murderous thanes?
Does he re-shape the world? If not, "Why not? One of Robert Kennedy's most famous statements was made in South Africa, according to at least two sources on the web, in, and is relevant here: "Some men see things as they are and ask 'Why? The motivations of Grendel in seem to be envy of human happiness and the sort of malice—pure, damnable nastiness—that is to be expected from a descendant of Cain.
Gardner's Grendel says that that's the humans' version, "but this is the truth" The Beowulf poet seems to ignore that all humans are "Cain's kin," descendants of the murderer, not the murdered Abel. Is there envy in Grendel when he observes "mated" pairs of humans? What's the significance to Grendel's coming upon a murdered man just before hearing the Song of Creation? What should we make of Grendel's conversion and the Danes' attack upon him? Why would Grendel accept the Song of Creation even if it meant that Grendel "was the dark side […].
The terrible race God cursed" 43? Note Grendel's being alone, with no one to talk to Grendel's conflict here: He wants to believe the Shaper and the Song of Creation, but—"I knew what I knew, the mindless, mechanical bruteness of things […]" Should we see a Job-like tragic integrity in Grendel's struggle to maintain his Truth?
A near-tragic pathos in his desire to believe: "Even if I must be the outcast, cursed by the rules of his [the scop's] hideous fable" Note that part of Grendel's conflict is the strength of "the dark of what was and always was," a "presence" that's "cold [,…] dark [,…] and centuries old.
The dragon, the dragon says, knows "everything. That's what makes me so sick and old and tired" Does the dragon's lesson have a similar effect on Grendel? Does the dragon ever lie to Grendel? Erlich, StGd Grendel 6 p. The argument on free will and the dragon's foreknowledge comes right out of A. Boethius's On the Consolation of Philosophy before , when Boethius was executed, not long before the events in Beowulf and Grendel.
Except Boethius argues that God can foreknow and yet not foreordain.
The upshot of the dragon's long, pedantic talk is "Things come and go […]. That's the gist of it. Note well this speech; Grendel will hear it again when Beowulf kills him 60, In a world ruled by Chance, is Grendel's way of life OK?
Nonmystics in the West—Koheleth for one, the Preacher in Ecclesiastes—look upon such coming and going and see the Absurd! We come and go, and the universe goes on mindlessly, in cycles, like the seasons, without a plot or roles for us, or purpose for human life and suffering; finally without me.
Why couldn't Grendel consider some brand of mysticism?
The dragon insists that Grendel, as an enemy of humankind is good for us. Is this true? Grendel says, "Nevertheless, something will come of all this" life, the world? The dragon replies with "Nothing. If the world and we are nothing, will nothing come of us? Are we nothing? If the Christians are right, everything—all of creation—came of nothing.
If the Daoists et al. What does come of Grendel's visit to the dragon? Chapter 6: Beginning of the War Against Hrothgar and Hart After his conversation with the dragon, Grendel feels convinced that he knows "what is. This effect is intriguing. In Beowulf the dragon is a real dragon and a symbol for a variety of malice: pure, active evil.
In Grendel the dragon is far more subtle. Is he equally malicious? It is now halfway through the book chapter-wise and "the height of summer. It will be against his usual custom when Grendel goes to fight Beowulf: it's still winter then.
Grendel is enraged by the hope of the people at Hart. Maybe summer is a hopeful time Grendel and Unferth—Meaning in Heroism?
Grendel presents Unferth as Grendel's "salvation" from the mechanical hollow, trapped existence of just murdering thane after than after thane ….
It adds another irony to Gardner's—and Grendel's—treatment of Unferth if you know that in Beowulf Unferth may be a kind of court jester, and his argument with Beowulf a flyting: i. In Grendel, Unferth makes a hero out of himself, and Grendel makes him a fool. Heroism is almost by definition imprudent.
It's quite possible that in the world of this story there is at best prudence or cleverness, no possibilities for a Wisdom that could encompass worldly folly, heroic imprudence. So: In the world of Grendel is heroism necessarily foolish? Unferth argues the Germanic idea crucial to Beowulf and the more philosophical parts of the Heroic tradition that "Except in the life of a hero, the whole world's meaningless.
The hero sees values beyond what's possible. Was Robert Kennedy idiotic to "dream things that never were and ask, 'Why not? In later raids, Unferth keeps trying to kill Grendel, and Grendel keeps laughing at him. Grendel's conclusion: "So much for heroism. So much, also, for the alternative visions of blind old poets and dragons" Presumably, dragons see better than blind old men, whether those men are poets or not. Theseus means that lunatics, lovers, and poets and that word includes playwrights in Elizabethan usage are permanently or temporarily a bit mad and see illusions.
In context, though, his lines can mean that lunatics, lovers, and poets may "apprehend"—just barely catch—real things beyond cool reason's comprehension, real things that nothing can seize and hold and possess. Chapter 7: Mission, Wealtheow—Meaning in Beauty?
Value in Love? Did the dragon's foreknowledge "foreordain" this 79? Note the number twelve. Beowulf scholars who want to see Beowulf as a Christ-figure stress that Beowulf is also associated with the number 12 e.
These flashbacks interrupt the established time-scheme of the story: as of p. Is Grendel in your reading tragedy or satire—or something else? Wealtheow is the third thing and first human to get to Grendel. That sounds right; art, heroism, and love are three standard sources of value. This idea, with Grendel's denial, is made explicit near the end of the chapter Will Wealtheow's and Hrothgar's kindness make Hrothulf kind? What does he look for more stability than love ?
There's increasing repetition of "violence.
A popular set of theories in the s into the '70s held that people generally or at least human males are violent by nature. Beowulf and Grendel remind us that at least one important aspect of Western culture—Germanic, aristocratic, Heroic—valued armed violence as the expression of aristocratic manhood.
The other contributors to medieval culture also had aspects valuing violence: Greco-Roman, Judeo-Christian, and, later, Islam.
Indeed, only radical Christianity among them actively promotes pacifism, and few Christians have ever been that radical in their faith. Hrothulf's evil counselor, Red Horse, seems at first like your standard philosopher of revolution, facing up to the logical implications of using violence to change things.
Don't be misled. He's not telling us, "Look at the baby, not at the blood"; he's getting off thinking about blood: "The total ruin of institutions and morals is an act of creation. A religious act. Murder and mayhem are the life and soul of revolution" Red Horse goes beyond the pale of respectable revolutionaries into nihilism at least as Nihilism has been seen by its enemies. Still, does he make some correct observations about human society? Is Red Horse a foil for Grendel?
Foil: As in "aluminum foil. In discussing narrative, a "foil" is a secondary or minor character who sets off a main character: e. Chapter 9: Grendel and the Gods I'm not sure what to make of the priest Ork, but he does deal with interesting problems: What is God? What is ultimate evil? Grendel had defined himself as lack, associating him with the demonic in sophisticated Christian theology; Ork defines "The King of Gods" as "the ultimate limitation [… whose existence] is the ultimate irrationality" The dragon has summed up Philosophy with "Things come and go"; Ork proposes for the essence of evil "two simple but horrible and holy propositions: 'Things fade' and 'Alternatives exclude'" The "Alternatives exclude" proposition is one Americans tend to dislike as much as the inevitability of our deaths given that we, too, are things that fade.
One of the reasons people cannot "have it all" is that "Alternatives exclude," and in many cases decisions are final and choosing one path or thing forbids one's choice of other paths or things. In the film, Grendel is even visually altered after his injury to look like an innocent, albeit scaly, little child. In the original Beowulf, the monsters are outcasts because they're bad just as Cain , their progenitor, was outcast because he killed his brother , but in the newer adaptation of Beowulf the monsters are bad because they're outcasts [ The Moorwen in the film Outlander is based on Grendel.
The Moorwen is the last of its kind, its species having been massacred by humans. Thus, it seeks revenge on humans. The Moorwen is ultimately killed when it is forced off a cliff. DC Comics. He is a member of the Dark Elves. He is killed by Wonder Woman when he tries to eat his half sister Scandal. Grendel is featured in issue 3 and issue 6 in the second volume of the ongoing Ghostbusters IDW comic series.
Essays[ edit ] Grendel appears in the speech Harold E. He stated a cancer cell is "like Grendel, a distorted vision of our normal selves". Grendel is the name of the heavy assault rifle in Crysis 2. Grendel is a monster in the Dragon Quest series. Final Fantasy VIII features a boss monster, which later becomes an incidental monster, called Grendel which depicts the beast as being four-legged.
Grendel's Cave : a MUD role-playing fantasy game based on the original story. It is later revealed that this monster is actually a cannibalistic human serial killer in a bearsuit. Skies of Arcadia features a monster named Grendel. In The Wolf Among Us by Telltale Games , Grendel is magically disguised as a normal-looking human yet possesses the attributes in the main story.
Gren short for Grendel has the ability to transform into a white, giant-like creature at will, resembling the giant in Beowulf. After a drawn-out fight, the player character, Bigby Wolf the Big Bad Wolf himself has the option of ripping off his arm, as a nod to his original Beowulf appearance.
Grendel is a recurring demon in the Shin Megami Tensei series. In Ragnarok Odyssey and it's Ace expansion Grendel was depicted as a massive masked giant who had a knack for getting up after being slewed, leading many of the characters to believe he was immortal. Grendel was also shown to have an alternate appearance called "Bronze Grendel" due to entering and being trapped in the Sograt desert, which tanned his skin.
In God of War video game the protagonist Kratos at one point faces 2 elemental boss monsters at the same time named "Grendel of the Ashes" and "Grendel of the Frosts", obviously named after the creature. Literature[ edit ] Grendel has appeared in multiple works of contemporary literature. In Michael Crichton 's novel Eaters of the Dead , the Wendol are members of a fictional enemy race.
In John Norman 's novel Marauders of Gor , protagonist Tarl Cabot kills a prominent Kur in prior novels, termed "the Others", antagonistic to the Priest Kings he serves , and mounts its head as a permanent trophy for the Torvaldslanders—and when queried by his aide-de-camp Samos, terms it Grendel followed by the single word "yes" as a sop to erstwhile Canadian slave-girl Leah's curiosity One of the best-known appearances of Grendel in contemporary literature[ citation needed ] is John Gardner 's novel, Grendel , in which the character is portrayed as a pensive, solitary creature who fears that his life has no objective meaning.