PDF | On Jan 1, , G L Pickard and others published Descriptive Physical Oceanography. C H A P T E R. 1. Introduction to Descriptive Physical. Oceanography. Oceanography is the general name given to the scientific study of the oceans. It is histori-. Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction (Sixth Edition). Talley, Pickard, Emery and Swift. Elsevier, Corrections. As of March 18, Chapter.
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Descriptive Physical Oceanography. An Introduction. Book • 6th Edition • Authors: Lynne D. Talley, George L. Pickard, James H. Swift. Browse book. preddoubwaitravun.ml - Free ebook download as PDF File This new edition of Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction is. Time and space scales of physical oceanographic phenomena from bubbles and capillary waves to changes in ocean circulation associated with Earth's orbit.
Ocean pressure is the weight of seawater per unit area force per unit area. Or pressure increases by 1 dbar per 1 m of water. Differences in pressure one of major drivers of ocean circulation Stiletto vs Elephant Other Properties watermass formation Oxygen Stopped here! Can use other properties as tracers showing source of water.!
Dissolved phosphate, silicate, nitrate, and nitrites, indicative of e. Radioactive elements such as tritium and radiocarbon and CFCs were introduced to the atmosphere by humans.
We can use them as tracers in the ocean. He comes from the earth s mantle and is emitted at plate boundaries, i. For seawater the coefficient k varies with wavelength.! For clear ocean, k is a minimum at 0. Nearly all the energy is absorbed in the surface waters 15 16 Coordinate systems and Notation Thermocline Sharp temperature gradient Halocline Sharp salinity gradient Pycnocline Sharp density gradient Oceans What can you say about the gradient? What can you say about the gradient?
A Gradient is a measure of how a quantity pressure, salt, temperature, density changes with direction: e. Next week: Thermohaline Circulation! Wednesday: Computer Lab: Make sure you set your password! Send me an so I can put you on the mailing list! What you think the corresponding density profile would look like? You will need to use the ln function on you calculator. No calculator write down how you would do it. C Name 2 processes that might give rise to the homogeneous temperature at A?
If the density of water is kgm -3 calculate the weight of water above a 1m 2 horizontal area at m depth. Instead ocean deep water is formed in polar regions where cold salty waters sink in fairly restricted areas.
This is the beginning of the thermohaline circulation. Oceanic currents are largely driven by the surface wind stress; hence the large-scale atmospheric circulation is important to understanding the ocean circulation.
The Hadley circulation leads to Easterly winds in the tropics and Westerlies in mid-latitudes. This leads to slow equatorward flow throughout most of a subtropical ocean basin the Sverdrup balance. The return flow occurs in an intense, narrow, poleward western boundary current. Like the atmosphere, the ocean is far wider than it is deep, and hence horizontal motion is in general much faster than vertical motion. In the southern hemisphere there is a continuous belt of ocean, and hence the mid-latitude westerlies force the strong Antarctic Circumpolar Current.
In the northern hemisphere the land masses prevent this and the ocean circulation is broken into smaller gyres in the Atlantic and Pacific basins. Coriolis effect[ edit ] The Coriolis effect results in a deflection of fluid flows to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and left in the Southern Hemisphere. This has profound effects on the flow of the oceans. In particular it means the flow goes around high and low pressure systems, permitting them to persist for long periods of time.
As a result, tiny variations in pressure can produce measurable currents. The fact that the Coriolis effect is largest at the poles and weak at the equator results in sharp, relatively steady western boundary currents which are absent on eastern boundaries. Also see secondary circulation effects. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.
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Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. This text is ideal for undergraduates and graduate students in marine sciences and oceanography. Expanded ocean basin descriptions, including ocean climate variability, emphasizing dynamical context New chapters on global ocean circulation and introductory ocean dynamics Companion website containing PowerPoint figures, supplemental chapters, and practical exercises for analyzing a global ocean data set using Java OceanAtlas.
Advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the marine sciences and oceanography. Preface Chapter 1. Introduction to Descriptive Physical Oceanography 1. Overview 1. Ocean Dimensions, Shapes, and Bottom Materials 2. Dimensions 2. Plate Tectonics and Deep-Sea Topography 2.
Seafloor Features 2. Spatial Scales 2. Shore, Coast, and Beach 2. Continental Shelf, Slope, and Rise 2. Deep Ocean 2.
Sills, Straits, and Passages 2. Methods for Mapping Bottom Topography 2. Bottom Material 2. Ocean Basins Chapter 3. Physical Properties of Seawater 3. Molecular Properties of Water 3. Pressure 3. Thermal Properties of Seawater: Temperature, Heat, and Potential Temperature 3.
Salinity and Conductivity 3. Density of Seawater 3. Tracers 3. Sound in the Sea 3. Light and the Sea 3. Ice in the Sea Chapter 4. Typical Distributions of Water Characteristics 4. Introduction 4. Temperature Distribution of the Oceans 4. Salinity Distribution 4. Density Distribution 4. Dissolved Oxygen 4. Nutrients and Other Tracers 4. Age, Turnover Time, and Ventilation Rate 4. Optical Properties of Seawater Chapter 5. Conservation of Volume and Mass 5. Conservation of Salt 5.
Three Examples of the two Conservation Principles 5. Conservation of Heat Energy; the Heat Budget 5.
Meridional Heat Transport 5. Buoyancy Fluxes 5. Wind Forcing Chapter 6.