The Kamasutra - how frequently we hear this notion. The Kamasutra represents a set of reliable and proven ancient Indian knowledge and traditions. Besides the treatise of Vatsyayana the following works on the same subject are procurable in India:—. The Ratirahasya, or secrets of love. The Panchasakya, or . INDIAN. GIRL. Chetan Bhagat is the author of six bestselling TIME magazine named him Indian kings, like their European counter Kamasutra free PDF dow.
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The Kamasutra: the original Sanskrit / Vatsyayana ; an English translation · [by] Lars Martin . at the beginning of the Gupta Empire, the apex of India's classical. Whilst publishing the Kamasutra under the imprint”The Kama Shastra Races in All Ages draws on the Kamasutra in his discussion of sexual practices in India. Introduction Vatsyayana's Kāmasūtra is one of the most popular and well-known works of the Indian tradition in the West and other parts of the world.
As for the errors in the science of love I have mentioned in this work, on my own authority as an author, I have, immediately after mentioning them, carefully censured and prohibited them. An act is never looked upon with indulgence for the simple reason that it is authorized by the science, because it ought to be remembered that it is the intention of the science that the rules which it contains should be acted upon only in particular cases… This work is not intended to be used merely as an instrument for satisfying our desires.
It also has a physical philosophy: It sees sexual desires as being in direct relation to the senses of the body which are experienced as emotions and emphasise the urge to be at peace with oneself and the inner unity of the body and mind.
Vatsyayana relates physicality to the erotic, without which, he claims, sex is meaningless. Also, since a holistic approach to recreational activities and art forms like dance, music, poetry, and literature helps to develop self-realization, and furthermore since sex is a part of such activities, it is vital.
This is true not only with regard to sexual desire, but also with regard to any desire and pleasure: We cannot live a desireless life because without a desire we cannot do anything. Gratifying a desire yields pleasure, but exceeding a certain limit in gratifying it causes evil effects. It is, therefore, that we do not need to stop gratifying our desires, even sexual desires, but to regulate them, or regulate our efforts to attain any kind of appetitive wellbeing.
It is here that morality comes to our help by providing the needed regulation. It offers the guidelines as to which sort of desires are worth satisfying and which sorts are not. Rather, it is a value because of its being what in itself is. The satisfaction of a desire is to be regulated also because of a social reason, namely, to keep the social equilibrium and to avoid social conflicts.
This is also the role of Dharma. However, apart from occasional remarks on certain practices, Vatsyayana does not intend to give a detailed ethical analysis of all the different sexual practices and the means to attain and heighten sexual pleasure. As a scientific observer, he just records the different practices in different cultures, even those that he himself does not approve: After analysing the inclinations of men, good and bad, its conclusions are guided by a concern for human welfare. A treatise incorporates a discussion of both the good and the bad, but one should act only on the good.
But how could he deny its 53 Vatsyayana, Kamasutra Doniger and Kakar , xvii. How could he not discuss this human tendency which has manifested itself throughout the whole of human history? Universal norms and rules valid for all places, persons, and times are not insisted or recommended by him. Acceptability of different practices depends on the practice in the locality, on the person and on the mutual enjoyment of the partners. Even sadomasochist practices are acceptable, if they are mutually enjoyable and if undertaken with respect for the partner.
It may be worth noticing that even in modern times such practices are considered to be perversions and that modern sexology only begins to accept that such practices can be beneficial at least in some cases when they are mutually pleasurable.
However, here also Vatsyayana cautions us: The method must be chosen according to the part of the body, the region, and the time. The emotions and fantasies conjured up in a moment in the midst of sexual chaos cannot be imagined even in dreams. For, just as a horse in full gallop, blinded by the energy of his own speed, pays no attention to any post or hole or ditch on the path, so two lovers blinded by passion in the friction of sexual battle, are caught up in their fierce energy and pay no attention to danger.
And so a man who understands the text will apply it only after he has come to know the delicacy, ferocity, and strength of his young woman, and his own strength. However, it does not consider personal and cultural variations as violations of the Dharma or the natural order of things. Spontaneity and variety that do not contradict other values and goals of life are acceptable. Rather, they enhance pleasure which promotes human wellbeing.
The Value of Pleasure Sexual pleasure in different traditions, both secular and religious, was considered to be oriented towards procreation.
Legal systems in general insisted upon procreation as a duty to the state. As a result, the intention to procreate was made a necessary condition for the experience of sexual pleasure.
Moreover, sexual pleasure was thought to be a distraction for spiritual experience. Pleasure itself is considered to be a goal of life, and sexual pleasure as a goal of sexuality, both enriching and necessary for the human person, though not discarding or overlooking the other goals of life.
Pleasure is not an enemy of the ultimate ends of life, but a natural and necessary step towards it. The value of sexual pleasure does not depend on its utility for some other end of sexuality. It is good in itself, because it is necessary for human wellbeing. The ways to heighten sexual pleasure have as their basis this philosophy of pleasure.
Moreover, pleasure is not damaging to God-experience; there is no conflict between pleasure and moral life. This does not mean, as already pointed out, that it recommends hedonism. Besides, speaking about marriage, it underscores procreation as its goal. Only that the goodness of pleasure is not defined exclusively in terms of procreation. Similarly, sex is an art, it is a play, and it is an aesthetic engagement and experience.
It is not merely the meeting of bodies, but sharing and flowering of different capabilities and aspects of human persons. Human persons in their totality involve in it and are enriched by it. This is clear from the fact that much time was spent on the preparation of love activities and for preparing the right ambience.
The man and the woman were supposed to master different arts and man-woman relationship and sexual intercourse take place in this overall context. The aspects of play and art liberate sexuality, on the one hand, from visualizing it as oriented to the sole purpose of procreation and, on the other, from its aggressiveness and uncontrollability.
As a result, refinement of impulses, personal dimensions of love, tenderness, communication, relationship, and mutuality become more important meanings of sexuality. The Importance of Love To speak about love as central to sexual ethics and marital life may not sound something new today. However, considering other traditions of his times, both Indian and others, the importance that Vatsyayana gives to love in man-woman relationship is something unique.
As mentioned above, after describing all the qualities of the bride, Vatsyayana gives love as the ultimate norm. On the contrary, Vatsyayana considers it first of all as a loving union of man and woman. Moreover, the love that Vatsyayana speaks about is not in the context of a mystical concept of sexuality; neither is it the romantic love as presented in literary works. Love, according to him, is central to his science. She attends to him with all love and devotion; she ministers to his personal needs; does everything according to his likes and dislikes; takes care of his friends, relatives and servants; welcomes with joy when he comes home; accompanies him in his games and sports; attends an 59 This may sound revolutionary even in the present day Indian context of arranged marriages, where money, social status, etc.
He is free to have sexual enjoyment with the courtesans, prostitutes, unmarried women, widows, and even wives of other men. Besides, polygamy is presented as an accepted practice. True, Vatsyayana speaks about polyandry, which was very rarely practised. Here also, he follows his style of just narrating the different customs rather than giving ethical judgements. However, the picture that we get is not that of a society which had practised gender justice and equality of man and woman as we understand today.
However, it may be too much to ascribe to it the ideal vision of gender equality. This may not sound something new in the present context. But we have to consider the fact that for centuries many cultures and traditions doubted whether women had sexual desire, or whether they had the pleasure at all.
She was just to respond to the need of the man. What is emphasised is the fact that both men and women have similar desires; therefore, the pleasures they gain should also be equal. However, the experience and intensity of satisfaction differ.
The ideal manner of attaining this state of supreme bliss comes about when each partner reciprocates with equal ardour.
It reinforces the fact that intimate togetherness leads to complete erotic pleasure. It even stresses that the man, if he is to be the ideal partner, put his pleasure second to hers. In the section on sexual union, he describes different kinds of union in which women take active role.
Sexual attraction, play, and intercourse are not between one subject and one object, but between two subjects. Or, both man and woman are objects of desire and enjoyment to each other.
However, here also we should avoid idealization. The rediscovery of and interest in the classical wisdom in general seems to be one reason.
Especially, in the West, there is a great interest in the wisdom of the Orient and particularly in the Indian tradition. It was accepted as an authoritative work in the science of love. Moreover, it inspired a lot of religious literature and art. There is no attempt to question the religious authority or the wisdom of different traditions.
Besides, while going to details Vatsyayana does not intend to make ethical analysis of different practices, but as a scientific observer wants to record different practices and customs of different places of the time, giving only occasional comments whether those are acceptable or not.
He overheared the lovemaking of the Lord Shiva and his wife Parvati and later recorded his utterances for the benefit of mankind. John Keay believes that the Kama Sutra Kamasutra is a compendium that was collected into its current form in the 2nd century CE. Chapter I Part I: Chapter II Part I: Chapter IV Part I: Chapter V Part II: Chapter I Part II: Chapter V Part IV: For instance, according to Vatsyayana the lalatika form enables both to feel each other and allows the man to visually appreciate "the full beauty of the female form", states S.
The territory of the text extends only so far as men have dull appetites; but when the wheel of sexual ecstasy is in full motion, there is no textbook at all, and no order. Vatsyayana also mentions variations in kissing cultures in different parts of ancient India. During sex, the text recommends going with the flow and mirroring with abhiyoga and samprayoga.
It also explains the signs and reasons a woman wants to enter into an adulterous relationship and when she does not want to commit adultery. It shows a "near total disregard of class varna and caste jati ", states Doniger. In the pages of the Kamasutra, lovers are "not upper-class" but they "must be rich" enough to dress well, pursue social leisure activities, buy gifts and surprise the lover. In the rare mention of caste found in the text, it is about a man finding his legal wife and the advice that humorous stories to seduce a woman should be about "other virgins of same jati caste ".
In general, the text describes sexual activity between men and women across class and caste, both in urban and rural settings.
In Redeeming the Kamasutra, Doniger states that "the Kamasutra departs from the dharmic view of homosexuality in significant ways", where the term kliba appears. In contemporary translations, this has been inaccurately rendered as "eunuch" — or, a castrated man in a harem, [note 1] a practice that started in India after the arrival of Turkish Sultans.
The Kamasutra does not use the pejorative term kliba at all, but speaks instead of a "third nature" or, in the sexual behavior context as the "third sexuality". In one of the longest consecutive sets of verses describing a sexual act, the Kamasutra describes fellatio technique between a man dressed like a woman performing fellatio on another man. The historical records suggest that the Kamasutra was a well-known and popular text in Indian history, states Wendy Doniger.
This popularity through the Mughal Empire era is confirmed by its regional translations. The Mughals, states Doniger, had "commissioned lavishly illustrated Persian and Sanskrit Kamasutra manuscripts". He did not translate it, but did edit it to suit the Victorian British attitudes.
The unedited translation was produced by the Indian scholar Bhagwan Lal Indraji with the assistance of a student Shivaram Parshuram Bhide, under the guidance of Burton's friend, the Indian civil servant Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot. The "Hindus were cowering under their scorn", states Doniger, and the open discussion of sex in the Kamasutra scandalized the 19th-century Europeans.
Yet, states Doniger, it became soon after its publication in , "one of the most pirated books in the English language", widely copied, reprinted and republished sometimes without Richard Burton's name. First, he had the courage to publish it in the colonial era against the political and cultural mores of the British elite.