The chapter ends with a discussion of what research findings suggest about the most effective ways to teach and learn a second language in the classroom. ng in the Language Classroom nguage Classroom Teaching and om Teaching and Learning in the and Learning in the Language ng in the Language. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom, by Tricia preddoubwaitravun.ml - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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(lecture theaters, classrooms, seminar rooms), seeking to provide a quality educational experience for their students (henceforth, teacher-learners) through a. PDF | The article focuses on how foreign language teachers could use mobile learning as learning taking place in the classroom and informal learning, as. PDF | This book makes a unique contribution to classroom assessment literature, to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they.
Cooperative of autonomy. On the other hand, collaborative learning al- lows learners more freedom to negotiate their ways Note and means of interaction among peers because it 1.
Cooperative learning and Matthews et al. This model views cooperative variety of characters, each with different nuanc- learning and collaborative learning as a continu- es.
The lack of uniformity may well induce um rather than a clear-cut dichotomy. Cooperative learning and second language reach- The authors would like to express their sincere grat- ing. New York: Cambridge University Press. Cooperative learning comments and suggestions to improve the quality of for higher education faculty.
Phoenix, Arizona: American the paper.
Cooperative learning, collabora- and warm encouragement throughout the study. The Modern Lan- References guage Journal, 81 4 , — Aronson, E. Panitz, T.
Collaborative versus cooperative learn- The jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. New York: Longman. Retrieved Bruffee, K. Change: The Magazine Sato, M.
Cooperative language learning and af- Monitoring, Ppractice, and proceduralization. Studies in fective factors. Arnold Ed.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sekita, K. Kyodo gakushu no teigi Dillenbourg P. What do you mean by collaborative to kanren yogo no seiri [A proposal for proper use of learning? Dillenbourg Ed. Dooly, M. Constructing knowledge together. Slavin, R. Student teams and achievement divi- In M.
Dooly Ed. Telecollaborative language learning: sions. Bern, Australia: Peter Lang. Storch, N. Are two heads better than one? Pair Erikawa, H. Kyodo gakushu wo toriireta eigo jugyo work and grammatical accuracy. System, 27 3 , — Collaborative writing in L2 classrooms.
Sugie, S. Kyodo gakushu nyumon [An invitation to Jacobs, G. An investigation of the cooperative learning]. Kyoto: Nakanishiya.
ELT Vygotsky, L. Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Journal, 50 2 , 99— Harvard University Press. Johnson, D. Learning together Wajnryb, R.
Grammar dictation. Materials extract 9. C provides a useful checklist of questions for the student writer.
This is just the begin- ning of the task for a writer, who would also use a sense of audience to decide in what order to present the information.
C Whatever your purpose, you must decide what information you have about your audience that is relevant to your purpose and take that information into account as you write. The following questions, to be asked each time you choose a purpose and an audience for your writing, will help you focus on that audience and the choices you need to make in order to write for that audience. Who is your audience? After you have decided your purpose, chosen a particular audience in mind, analyzed your audience, and deteimined the relevant information about your audience that you must consider as you write, you will next make a plan for your writing.
Donahue Latulippe: Writing as a Personal Product, pages 9. This is especially the case if little work is done in class on revising as it gives students the impression that the teacher is primarily responsible for improving the quality of their written work. A variety of procedures are now used to support revision, and these need to be evaluated against what we know of how good writers go about the process.
A popular procedure is conferencing, as demonstrated in the transcript in the Introductory task to this chapter. As the class writes, the teacher can talk with individual students about work in progress. Through careful questioning, the teacher can support a student writer in getting ideas together, organizing them, and finding appropriate language. Keh reports positive student feedback on conferencing. She sug- gests an elicitation procedure with focusing questions such as Who are you writing to?
Conferencing is a useful technique during the earlier stages of composition when writers are still thinking about content and organization. A popular device at a slightly later stage is the use of a checklist.
This ex- ample in Materials extract 9. D is for individual use. Notice that these questions focus on the overall content and organization, and its appropriateness to purpose and audience. Other types of checklist can be used when students exchange drafts for comment and can focus on a recent teaching point. For example, a checklist on paragraphing could contain the questions: - Does the composition divide naturally into several parts?
Reformulation is a useful procedure when students have produced a first draft and are moving on to look at more local possibilities for improvement. It has the particular advantage that it provides students with opportunities to notice any differences between the target model and their own production see Chapter 5 and thus to acquire language forms.
Reformulation Allwright proceeds through the following stages: 1 All the students carry out a guided writing task. The task is guided to ensure that the content and or- ganization of their writing is similar overall. Indeed, collaborative work could be used at the planning stage. D 1 First answer these questions about your audience: Who is your audience?
What interest do they have in this subject? What do they already know about this subject?
To entertain your audience? To educate them? To inspire them to do something? To help them understand something new?
To help them see something famil- iar from a new point of view? To change their minds about something? Ask yourself these questions: Is the main idea stated somewhere near the beginning of the paper? If not, would the paper be more effec- tive if you did state the main idea? No matter where the main idea appears in your draft or even if it is only implied , is the main idea clear to yotf. Do you think it is clear to your audience?
Do you need to be more specific or concrete in your explana- tions? How would you answer them now? Did you include all the information you needed to discuss your topic as fully as you wanted? Should you add anything to your discussion? Is there any irrelevant information, information the audience either already knows or does not need to know to understand your explanations?
Should you delete any sec- tions of your discussion? Have you said anything your reader is likely to object to? Did you answer those anticipated objections? Have you said anything your reader may not understand?
Is each new idea explained sufficiently before you move on to the next one? Are the ideas clearly linked together? Do you lead your readers step by step to understand your ideas? Should you rearrange any sections of your paper? Do you think it gives the reader the feeling that you have said everything you intended to say about your subject?
Leki: Academic Writing: Techniques and Tasks, page 3 The teacher marks the work by indicating problems by means of underlining or highlighting. In well-resourced institutions photocopying will be possible, but it is also possible for sections of the composition, at least, to be written on the board. This task can be done in the first or second language. My experience has been that, in early attempts to make use of reformulation, students often over-correct their own work, but that after several opportunities to practice they can be encouraged to take a more meas- ured approach and to pick up only those things of most use for their own writing.
The advantage of refor- mulation is that it allows discussion of such aspects as how ideas are developed, how a range of structures, vocabulary, or connecting devices can be used, and how the style needs to be appropriate to the readers. It will be the role of the teacher to provide the final feedback on the completed piece of work but, even here, there are choices to be made. A number of different marking strategies are available, for example: replacing the students writing with a more accurate or appropriate form; indicating a problem by underlining and inviting the student to self- correct, and locating an error and giving it a symbol to denote the type of error.
It is also possible to indicate in the margin that there is an error of a particular kind somewhere on that line and ask students to locate and correct it. These last two strategies require a coding system. The one in Figure 9. Figure 9. It is worth every teachers while to ensure that a variety of techniques are used to encourage this essential activity in the writing process. Classroom assessment procedures include the conventional paper-and-pencil style of test, structured class- room observation, and other modes such as portfolios and, self-assessment.
Paper-and-pencil tests These are the tests with which most readers are familiar, and several examples of test items are given in Paper-and-pencil tests are structured, tend to be formal, and are administered under controlled con- ditions with both stimulus and learner response in written form.
One short section of a chapter cannot hope to examine aspects of test design and construction in any detail and the reader is therefore recommended to volumes such as Hughes ; Weir ; Alderson, Clapham, and Wall ; and Bachman and Palmer Heaton , are useful resources for writing objectively scored tests.
A number of considerations influence both the approach to test design and the content of the tests them- selves. One of these, as we saw earlier, is to do with the view of language held by the teacher or coursebook writer and whether the focus is on language form or on communicative aspects of language.
Another is the link between the test and the syllabus and materials being used in the classroom. For example, if the learners have been developing skills in producing a piece of writing for a particular kind of reader at an appropriate level of formality such as a letter of application to a course, then ideally the test should set up a task which requires a simulation of this purpose and audience, and the marking criteria will include ap- propriateness of style.
Observation-driven learner assessment Observation-driven assessment has not yet developed in EFL contexts.
The standard handbooks for teachers are all concerned with the test construction process rather than with the broader requirements of assessment in school settings for example Hughes ; Weir We generally need to go outside the field of English foreign language education and look at mainstream language education in ESL settings see McKay in order to learn about observation-driven approaches to assessment.
These hold interesting potential for EFL.